The vegan gut profile appears to be unique in several characteristics, including a reduced abundance of pathobionts, including Enterobacteriacea [ 3342 ], and a greater abundance of protective species such as F. Thus, to date, the available information on the human gut microbiota does not allow inference of the probability that a single individual or a group will belong to a specific dietary type, such as vegetarian or omnivorous, from the composition of their gut microbiota.
As a group, Bacteroides-Prevotella have been shown to increase in abundance with a vegetarian or vegan diet using PCR-based DNA profiling techniques [ 34 ].
However, while these results may reflect differences in macro- and micronutrients content of the vegan and omnivorous diet, caution should be exercised in light of the small effect sizes and the relatively broad and unspecific categorization that KEGG pathways represent.
Notably, the vegan diet was associated with a decrease in pathobionts such as Enterobacteriaceae, a family of bacteria implicated in triggering low-grade inflammation, which Zimmer [ 42 ] also found were reduced in vegan subjects.
Here, we reported data from two larger cohorts subjects on a strict vegan or vegetarian diet under the assumption that inter-individual variations in the microbiota composition may be minimised and subtle dietary influences on the intestinal microbiota of both the test and the CG can be identified.
The possibility that any such health advantage might be linked to a unique protective gut microbiota profile has been the object of previous studies Glick-Bauer and Yeh, This might be because of the displayed high inter-individual variability in microbial composition observed in our sample, which confirmed a well-known trend in human gut microbiota studies De Filippis et al.
Microbiota dominated by Firmicutes which includes Ruminococcus have been strongly associated with a Western diet [ 29 ], and obesity [ 30 ], although there is debate over the significance of the relative ratios of Bacteroidetes and Firmicutes in lean and obese humans [ 31 ].
This may be due to differences in bowel transit which is longer in females and thus may allow more time for metabolism and absorption of short-chain fatty acids.
In addition, few studies have used RNA as a molecular marker to evaluate the metabolically active gut populations [ 29 ]. This subset of vegans was associated with regular exercise, minimal alcohol and smoking practices, and frequent consumption of vegetables, nuts and grains [70,71].
TMA is oxidized to TMAO which has been directly linked to atherosclerotic heart lesions , and has been show in rodent models to alter cholesterol and sterol metabolism, resulting in an increase in atherosclerosis .
However, while these studies effectively linked diet, microbiota profile and RA symptom severity, they either focused on vegans to the exclusion of vegetarians, or combined the diet types, thus allowing no way to discern if the improvement in RA symptoms in these studies can be attributed to a vegan diet per se, or whether comparably beneficial results could be attained by a less-restrictive and potentially easier-to-follow vegetarian diet.
The German Vegan study similarly found that, compared to the general population, vegans tend to refrain from smoking, consume limited alcohol, and engage in higher levels of physical activity [ 71 ]. Vegans also displayed a higher ratio of C. Moreover, few studies rigorously evaluate and compare omnivorous, vegetarian, and vegan subjects as distinct experimental groups Power et al.
These results are notable in that the vegan diet produced a significantly different result than the lacto-ovo vegetarian diet, suggesting that the broad distinction between meat and non-meat diets seen in earlier studies was not sufficient and a focus on vegan diets in their own right is warranted.
The relatively recent inclusion of vegan diets in studies of gut microbiota and health allows us the opportunity to assess whether the vegan gut microbiota is distinct, and whether the health advantages characteristic of a vegan diet may be partially explained by the associated microbiota profile.
During the recruitment process, all the volunteers were selected in such a way as to obtain the same average age, BMI and male: The African microbiome, influenced by a high fiber, vegetarian diet is dominated by the Prevotella enterotype, with an overall enrichment in Gram-negative bacteria, mainly Bacteroidetes, and a corresponding depletion in Firmicutes.
Faecal samples were serially diluted in 1 ml phosphate-buffered saline pH 7. · Dietary effects on the human gut microbiota have been extensively studied, and long-term dietary habits have been shown to affect the diversity and composition of the human gut microbiota 1,ancientmarinerslooe.com by: 2.
Healthy gut microbiota composition is subject to variation due to age, genetics, environment, diet and gut wall structure. Gut colonization starts at birth with a composition depending on the type of delivery and subsequently on the type of diet , .Cited by: We also report on the health benefits of a vegan diet for metabolic syndrome, cardiovascular disease, and rheumatoid arthritis concerning relevant impacts from gut microbiota.
Despite evidence supporting the clinical relevance of vegan gut microbiota to human health, the whole mechanism awaits further ancientmarinerslooe.com by: 1.
· Diet history is a factor that must be considered in the analysis of gut microbiota of any subjects. Ruengsomwong et al. found that among 13 Thai adults, non-vegetarians had a significantly higher abundance of Bacteroides while vegetarian subjects were enriched in the Prevotella ancientmarinerslooe.com by: The relatively recent inclusion of vegan diets in studies of gut microbiota and health allows us the opportunity to assess whether the vegan gut microbiota is distinct, and whether the health advantages characteristic of a vegan diet may be partially explained by the associated microbiota profile.
The relationship between diet and the intestinal microbial profile appears to follow a continuum, with Cited by: The most recent evidence that a vegan diet promotes a gut microbiota that directly reduces metabolic disease risk is the research linking diet to L-carnitine metabolism and atherosclerosis risk.